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Tantalum Crucible Liner

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Tantalum Crucible Liner


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Crucible Liners

Thermionics crucible liners are compatible with many manufacturer’s evaporation sources.


Liner Materials

Crucible liners are available in various materials. Carbon graphite and glassy coated carbon graphite are two of the more common materials used. They are popular due to their low cost and favorable thermal properties.

  • Carbon graphite

     is a fine grain, high density poly-crystalline material with interconnecting porosity. It can be purified to 5 ppm or less.

  • Glassy coated carbon graphite

     liners are made from the same high grade carbon as above, then baked in a coated graphite process above 1,400°C to eliminate any porosity in the carbon.

  • FABMATE crucible liners

     are an alternative to the glassy coated graphite. FABMATE receives an amorphous carbon treatment to provide a hard, abrasion resistant, nonporous surface.

Other crucible liner materials include:

  • Alumina
  • Boron Nitride
  • Copper
  • Molybdenum
  • Tantalum
  • Tungsten

Liners made from these more exotic materials are more expensive and typically limited to special applications.


Maximizing the life of a crucible liner requires careful attention to handling and storage. Never handle liners with bare hands. Liners should be handled with gloves, tongs or finger cots. Graphite, coated graphite and FABMATE liners 

should not be cleaned with chemicals or solvents of any kind.

 Used liners should be stored in a dry, 

oxygen-free environment.

Better Utilization of Liners

Proper technique is important, otherwise crucible liners will break due to thermal shock. Breakage, however, can be minimized. In addition, some materials become highly reactive when molten and may alloy to the liner.

The most common cause of crucible liner breakage is thermal shock. Overfilling a liner can cause the evaporant material to “spill over” the liner onto the water-cooled crucible surface. This causes an increased thermal stress across the liner and in most cases will cause it to crack or shatter.

Liners should be filled with evaporant material at a level of no less than 25% volume and no more than 80% volume. Aluminum has a tendency to “wet” most liner materials and requires a reduced maximum charge level of 70%. Aluminum becomes highly reactive when molten and as a result will eventually react with any material.

Additional information


1.5cc, 100cc, 10cc, 156cc, 15cc, 2.2cc, 25cc 4 Pocket, 25cc 6 Pocket, 40cc, 4cc, 75cc, 7cc


Introduction The Thermionics Laboratory e-GunTM, an electron beam evaporation source, is used to produce uniform high-purity films and optical coatings. The compact design and ease of maintenance make it useful in practically all vacuum systems and for many varied applications. It has been used to evaporate refractory and dielectric materials, as well as the more common conductive and semi-conductor

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Evaporating Aluminum in an e-Gun™ source

Application Note: Evaporating Aluminum in an e-Gun™ source Aluminum (Al) is highly reactive when molten. Al will react with all liner materials. Al also getters Oxygen to form oxide layers if any oxygen is present during deposition. Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) has a much higher melting point and vapor pressure when compared to Al (2,045C M.P., 1550C V.P. for Al2O3

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Evaporating Gold in an e-Gun™ source

Application Note: Evaporating Gold (Au) in an e-Gun™ source For Gold, the best liners are Coated Graphite and Intermetallic (Ti doped BN). You should not sweep during coating. You can sweep during material conditioning, but once the material is fully melted, just place the beam in the center of the pocket. This will give the best stability. You can

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Evaporation Table

NAME SYMBOL MELTING POINT 0˚C DENSITY g/cc 10^-8 TORR 10^-6 TORR 10^-4 TORR LINER NOTES N=INDEX OF REFRACTION Aluminum Al 660 2.70 677 821 1010 BN, CG Alloys and wets May fill volume 70%  (1) Aluminum Carbide Al4C3 1400 2.36  800 N=2.7 (3) Aluminum Floride AlF3 1257 Subl. 3.07 410 Subl. 490 Subl. 700 Subl. G, W, MO N=1.38

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Ground System for e-Guns™

The ground system is a very important aspect of the installation of the electron beam equipment. The vacuum tank and the power supply must be connected to a good earth ground. Under normal conditions, a good earth ground will consist of a ¾ inch diameter copper-clad rod driven into the floor at the vacuum tank location. It should be

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